IC Card – Introduction (Part 1)

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It has been. See the “Nagasaki smart card” for information on transportation IC cards.

A smart card is a chip card that has an arithmetic processing function.

There is a feature that can be applied inside the card.

History

The magnetic stripe was used before IC cards.

IC cards in Germany, Japan, and France were created by the same person. PatentI applied for it in 1968, but it was approved in 1982.

The functions of IC cards can be classified into four categories.

There is a memory card used for disposable cards.

Card with logic (equipped with access control function)

CPU mounted card

Other (dedicated coprocessor, etc.)

In the second half it appeared. We developed a memory card and a microcomputer card with built-in EEPROM, a built-inCPU and one chip. This was the start of the IC card. The basic technology of the card has been licensed to many card manufacturers around the world. A secure memory IC was developed by the currentSTMicroelectronics.

The IC card microcomputer was developed by Sony.

Those that use the existing architecture and those that adopt their own private architecture are included.

The memory size gradually increased to 512kByte.

Some cards have non-volatile memory as well. After the Vcc used to drive the IC, it was improved so that it could only operate with it.

It appeared in the first half of the 1990 era.

The platform type nation creator IC card that has a mechanism to download programs to non-volatile memory was developed in the late 1990’s. The world’s first platform type IC card was put into practical use after it was issued as a credit card. The program described in can be executed. There are things that can be done with the technology.

Some cards have adopted card OS. An electronic ID card is a type of IC card.

Sales of TheRecyclingPaperPossible started in April. Establish a system for collecting togetherre generation.

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There are two types of contact for reading and writing information on an IC card, a non-contact type and a contact type.

Contact type

When a reader is inserted into a contact IC card, external power is supplied from the gold plated terminals on the surface. ISO/IEC 7816 has a standard for the minimum required parts. International standard IC card-related standards areCard Standard.

A specification for the industry or service is created if the minimum part is not standardized.

There are standard specifications for both credit and debit cards.

GSM,3GPPでUIM cardThere are specifications.

Multiple applications can be installed with the help of the Java card and MULTOS specifications. The Visa Open Platform specification is found on the Java card.

ISO/IEC 7816 Japanese Industrial Standard is available in Japan.

The ZenginkyoIC cash card standard specifications can be found.

Chapter 25 describes the B-CAS IC card specifications in the first part of the chapter.

There is a standard for construction IC cards from the Japan Construction Mechanization Association. There were S-type mounting specifications in the early days of the industry standard to solve the mounting problem that interoperability between cards may not be possible only with ISO compliance. The JICSAP specifications have been used to create the ISO drafts.

Non-contact type

The magnetic field of the reader is reflected by the IC card. There is an international standard. Depending on the distance between the reader and writer, it is classified into four different types, “contact type”, “proximity type”, “proximity type” and “remote type”. There are type A cards in Europe. The B card is popular in the US.

The upper communication method of FeliCa and MIFARE was later adopted by ISO/IEC 18092 after it was not adopted in the international standard. ISO/IEC 2 was established in January 2005 as an international standard for the extended standard ofNFC.

In Japan, there is a number. Basic Resident Register cardSpecifications (Type B), Japan Railway Cybernetics CouncilAdopted FeliCa technology byIC card ticketStandards are widespread. The part that relates to the application of the cybernet standard is not specified in Part 4.

IC card application

It was introduced in the broadcasting field.

Public phone

The first large-scale application of IC cards was in 1983 by France Telecom. The International Telegraph and Telephone (KDD, currentKDDI) has adopted a non-contact type as a countermeasure against the IC calling card.

The use of a prepay card has decreased after that. Due to the decrease in the number of users, all IC payphones have been removed and only the places with the most users have been replaced.

Mobile phone

The 3rd generation mobile communication systemFOMA, the 4th generation mobile communication system OfPREMIUM, and the 3rd generation mobile communication system OfXias are all used. It is possible to take over the same number to another terminal, one call terminal and one data communication terminal if you put the card into another terminal. It can be used if you want to.

In Japan, apart from this, a mobile wallet is introduced as a mobile phone application.

Digital broadcasting

The billing management system uses an IC card.

The contact IC card was used as a viewing control card. The master key and the ID number are included in the receiver and distributed. The private key was used as a means to distribute and manage pay broadcasting. I couldn’t watch it without the B-CAS card because the copy control started and I couldn’t see it without it. B-CAS cardBS is a company.

Attach an IC card to the receiver to view it.

PPVCharge management is also performed.

Digitalized cable TV uses a contact type IC card. In order to watch various digital broadcasts that are rebroadcast, a B-CAS card for cable TV is required. There is also a receiver that supports both B-CAS and C-CAS. There is a difference in the specifications between the manufacturers. Refer to the “General Incorporated Associations” for operations of C-CAS cards. The Japan Cable Television Federation.

Introduction as a payment method

Cash card,credit card,prepaid card, as well as magnetic cards, are being switched to IC cards.

The first bank cards with IC cards appeared in 1984 In Japan, credit cards were introduced in 2001. Cash cards as IC cards began to be used in 2004.

IC credit card

In 1993 to a major credit card,Europay-MasterCard-VisaAgreed to develop common specifications for credit card payment business IC cards and took the acronym of the three companies for common specifications. Also subscribed was the American Express- Chinese UnionPay-Discover card.

May 6Mandatory IC payment support for member stores is to prevent fraudulent use.

IC cash card

IC cash card has an IC chip that can be used for transactions. The magnetic stripe card is more difficult to counterfeit.

If you tried to disassemble and analyze the magnetic stripe cash card, it would break, because the damage caused by counterfeit cards happened frequently.

The amount of damage caused by counterfeit cards has decreased due to the widespread use of IC cash cards.

We stopped using magnetic cash cards in the Republic of China.

Magnetic stripe cash cards will no longer be handled in South Korea from February of next year.

The introduction of the “IC cash card standard specifications” in Japan has accelerated since 2004, when card forgery spread and the damage was reported. It is possible to install a function that can be strongIdentification is possible. It is necessary to develop new standards or upgrade software after the standard ends.

Mizuho Trust and Banking replaced their IC cash cards with magnetic stripe-only cards in March of 2012 because of the magnetic stripes on them. There is a problem of backward compatibility for ATMs and payment terminals that do not support IC chip communication, but many financial institutions offer services that set the withdrawal amount low with magnetic stripes. In addition to contact-type IC chips, those that support IC card communication methods have also appeared, and those that can be used as IC card tickets.

2004

The “Super IC card” is a credit card, electronic money, and a cash card. The two card OSs are Java Card and Visa Global Platform. Edy won’t be installed for new issues after May 6. The general cards that were only issued with magnetic stripes became the IC card standard, so it became a card with no expiration date, but Disney In designJ-DebitI took a specification that.

The specifications for the “All-one IC card” have been changed in order to support IC transactions at other banks that support IC from the issued amount. The replacement cards were changed to the specifications of the former Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi as the system was changed to the new specifications.

2005

Existing users will be replaced with a new specification card and magnetic cards due to the replacement of the accounting system. The expiration date has also been abolished, and there is no need to use the Biometrics for switch. The name “IC cash card” was changed after Daishi Hokuetsu Bank was founded.

The IC cash card was issued by the bank.

The IC cash card was issued by the bank.

The “DREAMe-W” Credit & IC cash card will be available from March 2, 2006).

2006

Biwako Bank issued a card in the style of the old days. The card was not allowed to be used as an abandoned store at the store that was integrated during the Biwako Bank era.

The IC cash card was issued by the bank.

The bank has an IC cash card.

Cash and credit IC card is also issued at the same time.

The old Senshu bank is currently called Senshu Bank.

The issue will be issued with the specifications of the old store after the system integration.

When using a replacement card for a cash card that has expired, a card with no expiry date will be used. Was. The user was replaced by the leaf design since the general design was changed to a leaf design. It will be issued by Sazae-san’s design when the expiration date comes after the switch timing of each prefecture.

2007

There is an IC cash card, cash card integrated JA card, palm or finger vein authentication available.

When using a replacement card for a cash card that has expired, a card with no expiry date will be used. Was. The user was replaced by the leaf design since the general design was changed to a leaf design. It will be issued by Sazae-san’s design when the expiration date comes after the switch timing of each prefecture.

The standard will be issued as a standard at the Aogin Net branch, but the fee will be double the amount of normal stores.

2008

Since the end of October 2015, the issuance was limited to that point. The cards with 16 in the first 7 and 8 digits can’t be used after you transfer your account to the bank.

The bank has an IC cash card.

IC cash card from Shinkin Bank.

2009

2010

2011

The “W-Link card” is a credit and IC cash card that does not require a password.

The “Sengin Cash / Credit Card” is a credit card with no fingerprints.

2012

The Tokyo Star Bank has a cash card that does not have fingerprints.

Akita Shinkin Bank has a cash card that does not have fingerprints on it.

2015

Cash card with finger vein verification is offered by the bank. The card for exclusive use of dollar deposit is not compatible with IC. The card is no longer being used.

2016

IC cash card from Kyoto Central Shinkin Bank.

2018

The Integrated IC cash card does not have a magnetic stripe on it. Those under the age of 15 will have VISA debit-free cards.

The cash card is a type of card.

2021

Introduction to electronic money

Money has also been introduced.

The chart is based on IC card.

NTT Communications started to provide an electronic money service with an IC card in May 2004.

Fusion of payment methods

A card that combines functions has also appeared. There are cards that combine a credit card and a boarding card, or a card that has electronic money on the credit card. There is a card that can be used at the convenience store. Electronic money, an electronic ticket, and some other functions have appeared.

To IC credit card 100%

We will make credit cards compatible with IC by the revision of 2020.

There is an urgent need to abolish payments and switch to standard compliant ICs.

The credit card issuer will not be covered by the damage guarantee by the credit card issuer company if the terminal is not installed. There is an urgent need to support IC, since it was run on the credit reference terminal.

Introduction in public transportation

The IC card is the first in the world.

The first case of introducing an IC boarding card in Japan is the bus card.

IC cards are used in in-vehicle processors.

IC cards can record more information than magnetic cards, but because they are non-contact type, moving parts such as automatic ticket gates can be reduced. In the case of automatic ticket gates, there are many machines shared with magnetic tickets, so the Frequency of Maintenance doesn’t decrease immediately

At the beginning of its spread in Japan, it was introduced by the operator alone, or by the bus sector alone, depending on the operator.

Japanese railway

In 1996, the “General-purpose Electronic Ticket Technology Research Association” was established, and technical studies and demonstration experiments were conducted.

Japanese bus

Since the beginning of the 21st century, businesses in various regions have begun to introduce themselves.

There are companies that are conducting demonstrations.

IC card mutual use

Many cards use chips that are compliant with the Cybane standards and can be read by a terminal device. There are 10 types of transportation IC cards that can be used interchangeably as fare cards and electronic money. There are cases where the IC card area introduced in some regional units can be used with 10 types of cards.

IC cards can be used individually or in a group.

Transportation other than Japan

Charlie Card was introduced in Boston, Massachusetts.

Smart Link was introduced in Boston, Massachusetts.

Finland

TheOwlBus company introduced a bus card in January 1992.

Hong Kong

Octopus(OCTPUS) Card (Introduced in September 1997, FeliCa)

Malaysia

(Introduced in 1998, Type-A)

Chugoku

Singapore

ez-link card(Introduced in April 2002, FeliCa)

Republic of China(Taiwan)

United Kingdom

In February 2003 the Oyster Card was introduced.

Ireland

Leap card( Leap Card )

Macau

South Korea

Kingdom of Thailand

Rabbit card Successor to Sky Smart Card

The Sky smart card has been suspended.

MRTA card (Bangkok Metro)

Australia

New Zealand

Metrocard (Christchurch·bus)

France

バングラデシュ

(Introduced in September 2009, FeliCa)

Introduction on toll roads

A special IC card called “ETC card” is set in the on-board device of the vehicle and used. Due to the nature of the system, toll payment will be postpaid to East Japan, Central Japan, and West Japan Expressways Co., Inc.

Introduction to the administrative field

The Basic Resident Register card was introduced in Japan in August of 2003 A new issue ended at the end of December. The IC card was introduced in 2006 The IC card was introduced as a staff ID for the first time nationwide.

A government official card is issued to each government agency to be used for issuing Prefectures.

An IC card has been adopted by the United States of America as a government identification card. The Real ID national identity card was introduced in November of 2009.

IC card is used as a citizen card. By July 4, 2003 million copies had been distributed, it was introduced in April 2001.

An IC card type health insurance card was issued in 1998. The doctors were given the cards. We were able to shorten the refund period by digitizing the procedure.

A Hong Kong ID card has a built-in chip. I want to replace all ID cards with IC cards by October. It can be used at an automatic entry/exit gate called e-channnel, which is not called “entry/departure” in Hong Kong. It will be used in 2007.

In 2002, we introduced the Health Insurance IC Card, which is an IC of the health insurance card of National Health Insurance. The foreign residence visa, which is a Taiwanese alien registration card, has been converted to an IC card in 2003 and will be fully converted in 2007.

Employee Card/Student Card

An IC card can be used as an ID card for a student at a university.

The FCF promotion forum advocated a common format as an ID card in 2004. The FCF has 10 card solution companies participating in it. The common format for student IDs and faculty IDs for educational institutions has been adopted by the 2016 educational institutions.

Construction IC cards are used in the industry. The issuance of construction IC cards started in 1996. There were 13 issued cards in 2004. Confirmation of machine operation qualifications is one of the things it is used for. It is difficult for people to go in and out of different companies and so a card that can be used across companies and sites was required. When driving a car, check your qualification and record your driving history with an IC card. If the qualification/skill code is read from the card, the engine start lock can be released.

You cannot purchase cigarettes without reading the taspo card into the sensor if you have an IC card that can be said to be a form of identification. It was possible to purchase cigarettes with the amount of the balance when depositing the amount to the card, but the acceptance of the charge ended on February 31

Introduction in shopping streets

The IC card “IC-CARDIA” is used to make stamp cards. A credit function and a pre-paid function were added after that. The “Erumor LUCK CARD” was introduced in 2006 with a safety pass function that was more comfortable to use.

Edy is being introduced in more and more places.

In the shopping districts along the JR lines and private railway lines in Tokyo, the majority of users own and carry Su.

Use in amusement

In the facilityarcade game it is possible to use both prepaid cards and ID cards for record management of play data. “Aime” and “Bana passport” are the mutual use service of “.

Use in public competition

There is an IC card that can be used to purchase a winning horse voting ticket.

Security

The replacement is being done for the purpose of improving.

There is no way to prevent unauthorized reading and writing of information on the magnetic stripe, and access control can be performed with an IC chip. A number of attack methods have been developed by Paul Kocher and Ross Anderson. The development of IC cards that deal with new attack methods is a challenge.

Expectation

IC cards will be more difficult to commit fraudulent acts than magnetic cards. The basis is shown

It is hardened with furtherEpoxy and integrated into a single chip. External terminals (6 I/O, CLK, RST, Vcc, Vpp, GND) are used in the case of the contact type, while the built-in antenna is used in the case of the non-contact type. It is difficult to modify the control signal since the wiring is not exposed. It is necessary to disassemble the chip and read it directly.

Unauthorized reading and writing can be difficult due to the control of access from the external terminal.

Replacement with IC cards is in progress in order to prevent damages caused by counterfeiting.

An IC card with a high- performance CPU can perform complex processing inside the card and is expected to be used as a card with more functions than a magnetic card If you store the password on the IC card, you can enter it by the user.

It is expected that the IC card with the program download mechanism will be able to add new functions to the IC card even after it is issued. A multi-purpose card is one card that can be used for multiple services.

The IC card is expected to be a multi-functional card.

Effect

By converting a bank card into an IC card, we were able to greatly reduce the number of card forgery crimes.

I introduced an IC card in public phone due to the decrease in users. The JR East Orange card-Io card was introduced on behalf of USC in October of 2008.

The card is an IC card, but the effect of making it an IC card is unknown because of the measures taken against unauthorized use.

problem

It was announced that internal information can be read to the card. The vulnerability was discovered in October 1996 and was kept secret until a new chip was created to address it. The memory contents can be dumped to an external pin if the IC chip is reconnected using a microprobe. A TNO engineer made a presentation. The system is affected if the secret key is read from one card using electronic money.

The forged technician was arrested because he bought a subway ticket. The reason for the camouflaging is to make it harder for the computer to decode the card.

The chip managemnt system was cracked and the reassembled list was released. According to the company, reading the code of a card doesn’t mean that it can be used to attack other cards.

There is an attack method that can be used to get the secret key of the phone. Partition attack is a type of side channel attack. There are eight selected plaintexts that need to be used to obtain the key.

The LSI used in commercial IC cards can be removed by Japanese LSI engineers. The LSI failure analysis product888-607-888-607-888-607- is a product888-607- that anyone can obtain. It is desirable that the amount of money obtained by attacking an IC card is less than the purchase amount of these devices, or it is important to review security measures as the failure analysis technology evolve.

At the Chaos Communication Congress in December 2007, it was announced that there was a vulnerability in the Mifare Classic chip. [28]

The program and private key may have been analyzed before. The official specification for the B-cas of the IC card is 2 TSID, which is the one that does not require the physical substance of the IC card. The access key to each block of the B-CAS card is changed in 2011. Some people are found guilty in a criminal trial because of this. The B-CAS program block is reverse engineering after that. It is not possible to use a blank IC card as a B-CAS card since the key of the IC card has not been unlocked. In order to strengthen the security of IC cards, the byte length of some items of related information will be expanded, in November.

対 応

The application design, the OS and library implementation method, and the chip itself are some of the topics being studied. Third party evaluation is required.

FIPS PUB 140-2 and industry-specific certifications can be found in the certification system.

Evaluation and certification organization

The Communications-Electronics Security Group is part of the Department of Trade and Industry.

In October 1999 I participated in the Australian Information Security Evaluation Program.

The Japan Information Technology Security Evaluation and Certification scheme was participated in in October of 2003 by the Information Processing promotion organization.

The test house for smart cards is in France.

Participated in 2008

ISO / IEC WD 19790

FIPS140-2 (CMVP) base

Industry-specific evaluation program

Chip maker

IC chips are made by major manufacturers.

EAL5 line

Infineon was acquired byBSI in May 2002.

P8WE5032V0B ([email protected]), P8WE5032V0G ([email protected]), and P8WE6017V1I were all acquired byPhilips.

The EAL4 is used for the ST Microelectronics ST16/ST19XR34,ST19XS08,ST19XS04.

EAL4+ line

Renesas Electronics H8/3101H8/3109(19979)H8/3111H8/3112(19989E6 19999)

Atmel AT90SC19264RC (EAL4+ @DCSSI acquired in November 2002)

The S3CC9PB was acquired by the DCSSI in December 2002.

The Matsushita Electric Industrial announced in September 2001 that they were going to build a plant.

SM4128 was acquired byBSI in September 2005.

None

RC-S860 is a SoF-basic. Only the manufacturer’s catalog can be used to confirm the acquisition of RC-S853, RC-S854, and RC-853. The tip is Fujitsu MB94RS 402.

Motorola MC68HC05SC0401 (E3 @ DCSSI June 1998)

Toshiba JT6N55 (announced in January 2000)

Fujitsu

Card vendor

Datacard Datacard

Japan Mechatech Co., Ltd. http://www.j-mecha.com/

footnote

“ECOM European Inspection Team Report on Electronic Commerce” was published in 2011.

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